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Cognitive Science and the Social
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 226

Cognitive Science and the Social

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2018-03-09
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  • Publisher: Routledge

The rise of cognitive neuroscience is the most important scientific and intellectual development of the last thirty years. Findings pour forth, and major initiatives for brain research continue. The social sciences have responded to this development slowly--for good reasons. The implications of particular controversial findings, such as the discovery of mirror neurons, have been ambiguous, controversial within neuroscience itself, and difficult to integrate with conventional social science. Yet many of these findings, such as those of experimental neuro-economics, pose very direct challenges to standard social science. At the same time, however, the known facts of social science, for example...

Explaining the Normative
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 240

Explaining the Normative

Normativity is what gives reasons their force, makes words meaningful, and makes rules and laws binding. It is present whenever we use such terms as ‘correct,' ‘ought,' ‘must,' and the language of obligation, responsibility, and logical compulsion. Yet normativists, the philosophers committed to this idea, admit that the idea of a non-causal normative realm and a body of normative objects is spooky. Explaining the Normative is the first systematic, historically grounded critique of normativism. It identifies the standard normativist pattern of argument, and shows how this pattern depends on circularities, assumptions about the unique correctness of preferred descriptions, problematic t...

The Politics of Expertise
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 338

The Politics of Expertise

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2013-11-07
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  • Publisher: Routledge

This book collects case studies and theoretical papers on expertise, focusing on four major themes: legitimation, the aggregation of knowledge, the distribution of knowledge and the distribution of power. It focuses on the institutional means by which the distribution of knowledge and the distribution of power are connected, and how the problems of aggregating knowledge and legitimating it are solved by these structures. The radical novelty of this approach is that it places the traditional discussion of expertise in democracy into a much larger framework of knowledge and power relations, and in addition begins to raise the questions of epistemology that a serious account of these problems requires.

Max Weber
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 124

Max Weber

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2003-09-02
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  • Publisher: Routledge

First published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Understanding the Tacit
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 234

Understanding the Tacit

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2014-01-21
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  • Publisher: Routledge

This book outlines a new account of the tacit, meaning tacit knowledge, presuppositions, practices, traditions, and so forth. It includes essays on topics such as underdetermination and mutual understanding, and critical discussions of the major alternative approaches to the tacit, including Bourdieu’s habitus and various practice theories, Oakeshott’s account of tradition, Quentin Skinner’s theory of historical meaning, Harry Collins’s idea of collective tacit knowledge, as well as discussions of relevant cognitive science concepts, such as non-conceptual content, connectionism, and mirror neurons. The new account of tacit knowledge focuses on the fact that in making the tacit explicit, a person is not, as many past accounts have supposed, reading off the content of some sort of shared and fixed tacit scheme of presuppositions, but rather responding to the needs of the Other for understanding.

Max Weber and the Dispute over Reason and Value
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 288

Max Weber and the Dispute over Reason and Value

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2014-04-04
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  • Publisher: Routledge

The problem of the nature of values and the relation between values and rationality is one of the defining issues of twentieth-century thought and Max Weber was one of the defining figures in the debate. In this book, Turner and Factor consider the development of the dispute over Max Weber's contribution to this discourse, by showing how Weber's views have been used, revised and adapted in new contexts. The story of the dispute is itself fascinating, for it cuts across the major political and intellectual currents of the twentieth century, from positivism, pragmatism and value-free social science, through the philosophy of Jaspers and Heidegger, to Critical Theory and the revival of Natural Right and Natural Law. As Weber's ideas were imported to Britain and America, they found new formulations and new adherents and critics and became absorbed into different traditions and new issues. This book was first published in 1984.

Conflict in Organizations
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 178

Conflict in Organizations

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The impossible science
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 222

The impossible science

What accounts for American sociology's diversity, its broad and eclectic research agenda, its lack of unifying paradigms, and its overall weakness as an institutional force in both academia and the policy arena? Stephen Park Turner and Jonathan H. Turner critically examine the discipline, tracing its historical roots back to the Civil War. In their comprehensive analysis, the authors point out the "accidents" in the history of the discipline and the role of political decisions and strategies in shaping it: particularly the attempts to reform sociology, and the equivocal, often contradictory missions that these reforms have prescribed for sociologists. They highlight the variable nature of th...

Sociological Explanation As Translation
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 110

Sociological Explanation As Translation

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 1980-06-30
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  • Publisher: CUP Archive

First published in 1980, this book examines the nature of sociological explanation. The tactics of interpretive sociology have often remained obscure because of confusion over the nature of the evidence for interpretation and the nature of decisions among alternative interpretations. In providing an account of the problem of interpretive sociological claims, the author argues that there is rationality to interpretation. He also presents a fresh view of the relationship between qualitative and statistical claims and shows their complementary character. Dr. Turner's lucid and comprehensive analysis breaks new ground in its fundamental re-examination of the conceptual basis for "explaining" social behaviour. By its call for more rigourous conceptual sophistication in attempted explanations of social behaviour, this book will stimulate controversy and lively discussion among sociologists.

Brains/Practices/Relativism
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 214

Brains/Practices/Relativism

Brains/Practices/Relativism presents the first major rethinking of social theory in light of cognitive science. Stephen P. Turner focuses especially on connectionism, which views learning as a process of adaptation to input that, in turn, leads to patterns of response distinct to each individual. This means that there is no common "server" from which people download shared frameworks that enable them to cooperate or communicate. Therefore, argues Turner, "practices"—in the sense that the term is widely used in the social sciences and humanities—is a myth, and so are the "cultures" that are central to anthropological and sociological thought. In a series of tightly argued essays, Turner traces out the implications that discarding the notion of shared frameworks has for relativism, social constructionism, normativity, and a number of other concepts. He suggests ways in which these ideas might be reformulated more productively, in part through extended critiques of the work of scholars such as Ian Hacking, Andrew Pickering, Pierre Bourdieu, Quentin Skinner, Robert Brandom, Clifford Geertz, and Edward Shils.