This book introduces the most important problems of reference and considers the solutions that have been proposed to explain them. Reference is at the centre of debate among linguists and philosophers and, as Barbara Abbott shows, this has been the case for centuries. She begins by examining the basic issue of how far reference is a two place (words-world) or a three place (speakers-words-world) relation. She then discusses the main aspects of the field and the issues associated with them, including those concerning proper names; direct reference and individual concepts; the difference between referential and quantificational descriptions; pronouns and indexicality; concepts like definitenes...
"Systematizes and develops in a comprehensive study Nelson Goodman's philosophy of language. The Goodman-Elgin point of view is important and sophisticated, and deals with a number of issues, such as metaphor, ignored by most other theories." -- John R Perry, Stanford University
Ideal for public, school, and academic libraries looking to freshen up their reference collection, as well as for LIS students and instructors conducting research, this resource collects the cream of the crop sources of general reference and library science information. Encompassing internet resources, digital image collections, and print resources, it includes the full section on LIS Resources from the Guide to Reference database, which was voted a #1 Best Professional Resource Database by Library Journal readers. Organized by topic and thoroughly indexed, this guide makes it a snap to find the right sources. It offers an appealing introduction to reference work and resources for LIS students and also serves as an affordable course book to complement online Guide to Reference access.
This unique 2-in-1 reference presents vital information on pathophysiology in two helpful ways on every page. The wide inner column contains detailed narrative text; the narrow outer column contains brief bulleted summaries of the same information. This format enables nurses to quickly scan the bulleted points and jump to in-depth information as needed without turning the page. Organized by body system, the book covers 220 diseases and disorders. Two 8-page full-color inserts illustrate selected disorders. Illustrations and flowcharts demonstrate abnormal structures and pathophysiologic processes. Icons highlight complications, life-threatening disorders, emergency interventions, and effects of treatment on disease processes.
This is a book about the concept of a physical thing and about how the names of things relate to the things they name. It questions the prevalent view that names 'refer to' or 'denote' the things they name. Instead it presents a new theory of proper names, according to which names express certain special properties that the things they name exhibit. This theory leads to some important conclusions about whether things have any of their properties as a matter of necessity. This will be an important book for philosophers in metaphysics and the philosophy of language, though it will also interest linguists concerned with the semantics of natural language.
How do we refer to people in everyday conversation? No matter the language or culture, we must choose from a range of options: full name ('Robert Smith'), reduced name ('Bob'), description ('tall guy'), kin term ('my son') etc. Our choices reflect how we know that person in context, and allow us to take a particular perspective on them. This book brings together a team of leading linguists, sociologists and anthropologists to show that there is more to person reference than meets the eye. Drawing on video-recorded, everyday interactions in nine languages, it examines the fascinating ways in which we exploit person reference for social and cultural purposes, and reveals the underlying principles of person reference across cultures from the Americas to Asia to the South Pacific. Combining rich ethnographic detail with cross-linguistic generalizations, it will be welcomed by researchers and graduate students interested in the relationship between language and culture.
The tenses of natural languages are intimately connected with the abilities we have to relate real or fictional stories that take place outside our immediate temporal or spacial context. While philosophers and cognitive scientists have had difficulty coming to terms with these abilities, James McGilvray maintains that they must be understood before an adequate view of what a tense is can be constructed.