Geology coalesced as a discipline in the early part of the nineteenth century, with the coming together of many strands of investigation and thought. The theme of experimentation and/or instrument-aided observation is absent from most recent accounts of that time, which rely on an admixture of theory and field observations, informed by close examination of minerals. James Hutton emerged as the person who had it right with suggestion of a central heat source for Earth, while Abraham Gottlob Werner and his Neptunist supporters were derided as being blinded by overarching belief, as opposed to sober application of observed facts. However, despite several claims that Hutton had won the day, primary literature from both England and the Continent reveals that the question was by no means settled for decades after Hutton derided information derived from "looking into a little crucible." This Special Paper makes the case that it was just those parameters of heat, pressure, solution, and composition discovered in the laboratory that prevented resolution of the overriding questions about rock origin.
The concept of temperature. The thermodynamic temperature scale. Entropy, temperature and statistical mechanics. The international practical temperature scale. General characteristics of temperature measuring devices and treatment of data. Liquid-in-glass thermometers. Sealed liquid or gas sensing instruments and bimetallic sensors. Electrical resistance temperature measurement using metallic sensors. Thermistors and semiconductors for temperature measurement. Thermoelectric temperature measurement. Theory of radiant heat transfer as a basis for temperature measurement bu radiant techniques. The disappearing filament optical pyrometer. Photoelectric optical pyrometers (automatic and infrared). Total radiation pyrometers. Novel methods of temperature measurement. Pyrometric cones. Calibration methods. Installation effects. Dynamic response of sensors. Temperature instrumentation and control. Thermocouple reference tables.
Temperature, Second Edition gives a comprehensive account of the principles of thermometry over the range 0.5 K to about 3000 K. The book focuses on various topics on the field of thermometry such as the full description of the ITS-90, its practical application and preparation; accounts of total radiation thermometry and acoustic gas thermometry using spherical resonators; and the development of sealed cells for the realization of fixed points. The construction and use of high-temperature platinum resistance thermometers; introduction of the use of gold-platinum thermocouple; and the calibration and practical application of radiation thermometers are discussed as well. Physicists, engineers, researchers, and students will find the book a good reference.
This is a new book on food process engineering which treats the principles of processing in a scientifically rigorous yet concise manner, and which can be used as a lead in to more specialized texts for higher study. It is equally relevant to those in the food industry who desire a greater understanding of the principles of the food processes with which they work. This text is written from a quantitative and mathematical perspective and is not simply a descriptive treatment of food processing. The aim is to give readers the confidence to use mathematical and quantitative analyses of food processes and most importantly there are a large number of worked examples and problems with solutions. The mathematics necessary to read this book is limited to elementary differential and integral calculus and the simplest kind of differential equation.
This updated Second Edition covers current state-of-the-art technology and instrumentation The Second Edition of this well-respected publication provides updated coverage of basic nondestructive testing (NDT) principles for currently recognized NDT methods. The book provides information to help students and NDT personnel qualify for Levels I, II, and III certification in the NDT methods of their choice. It is organized in accordance with the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2001 Edition). Following the author's logical organization and clear presentation, readers learn both the basic principles and applications for the latest techniques a...
This accessible text is now fully revised and updated, providing an overview of fabrication technologies and materials needed to realize modern microdevices. It demonstrates how common microfabrication principles can be applied in different applications, to create devices ranging from nanometer probe tips to meter scale solar cells, and a host of microelectronic, mechanical, optical and fluidic devices in between. Latest developments in wafer engineering, patterning, thin films, surface preparation and bonding are covered. This second edition includes: expanded sections on MEMS and microfluidics related fabrication issues new chapters on polymer and glass microprocessing, as well as serial p...
The papers and discussion of a symposium on pyrometry held by the American institute of mining and metallurgical engineers at its Chicago meeting, 1919. In cooperation with the National research council and the National bureau of standarts.
This book brings together in a single volume the principles, practice and applications of the technology and places it in the context of other recent developments in optical fiber sensor technology. Relevant solid-state physics relating to fluorescent emission is reviewed to aid in materials selection all aspects of sensor design including detector circuit configurations are covered. Cross-referencing of systems with other temperature sensors and comparative evaluations with other sensor types are included.
The proceedings from this May 2000 symposium illustrate the range of applications in Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP). The refereed papers cover a variety of issues, such as ultra-shallow junctions; contacts for nanoscale CMOS; gate stacks; new applications of RTP, such as for the enhanced crystalization of amorphous silicon thin films; and advances on RTP systems and process monitoring, including optimizing and controlling gas flows in an RTCVD reactor. Most presentations are supported by charts and other graphical data. c. Book News Inc.